These limitations constrain and justify the cycle design for the maximum temperature of the heat source. The advanced combustion turbine power generators allowed for a higher efficiency as they integrated regenerators, gas reheaters, compressor intercoolers, and turbine blade cooling (this allows for higher operating temperature). A gas turbine with air as the working fluid has an isentropic efficiency of 0.70 when operating at a pressure ratio of 3. As already mentioned, due to solar radiation intermittency and fluctuation there is a mismatch between power demand and power generation. Through stage 1 to 2, air is compressing and increasing temperature whereas entropy is constant and volume of the air is decreasing. Finally, the low-pressure carbon dioxide vapors reach saturation (state 6 on the figure) and are condensed. Eventually the high-temperature heat generated by the concentrated radiation at the focal point is converted into power using a conventional or advanced thermodynamic cycle. The exergy efficiency can also be defined as follows: The third way of defining the exergy efficiency of the overall cycle is by using the ratio of the energy efficiency relative to the reversible heat engine efficiency that is operating between T1 and T3. A large single-cycle gas turbine typically produces for example 300 megawatts of electric power and has 35–40% thermal efficiency. The countries that have developed experimental solar tower systems are Spain, the USA, Japan, Israel, Russia, and Italy. A classification of central tower power stations is shown in Figure 7.21. This is a highly considered value when designing a power plant because if the specific work is high, then the power plant could be more compact. This situation could be alleviated by using two turbine stages and reheating the steam between them. Multistaging for expansion of the turbines. The exergy efficiency above is defined as the ratio of the useful work output to the total exergy input at the source heat. As explained in the previous section, pressure ratios through the stages at reheating and intercooling should be optimized according to the r1=r0.5 relationship. [32.36%; 51.40%; 1101 kW/(kg/s); 0.970; 745 kW; 358 kW]. The advantage of the supercritical CO2 cycle relies on the following. A cycle is proposed as a development of the Lenoir cycle, in which the working fluid is expanded isentropically from its peak pressure down to a point where its temperature is equal to T1, the initial temperature. The remaining spectrum is concentrated with CPC optics on a thermal receiver and used with a heat engine of advanced cycle to generate power. The air temperatures at the compressor and turbine exits are determined from isentropic relations in Appendix B: To find the back work ratio, we need to find the work input to the compressor and the work output of the turbine: That is, 33% of the turbine work output is used just to drive the compressor. Isentropic efficiencies of steady-flow devices in thermodynamic systems. In fact, this approach is similar to multistaging in turbines of Brayton and Rankine cycles with intercooling and interheating. . 4.11. (6.29). It is to be noted that for small pressure ratios the specific turbine work generated is small relative to the power consumed by the compressor. Calculate:•thermodynamic properties of the working fluid for each state;•system overall energy efficiency;•system overall exergy efficiency;•PR, ER, and BWR; and•find the mass flow rate of steam required by 50 MW power production plant. Using the standard-air assumptions, determine the thermal efficiency of the cycle. 22. loss in gas turbine output directly affects plant throughput. Commonly, two thermal reservoirs of molten salt are used, one hot and one cold, to facilitate the continuous operation of the turbine as shown in Figure 7.25 that illustrates the conceptual diagram of a molten salt/steam Rankine central receiver solar plant. Compare this to the Carnot efficiency achievable between the temperature limits and explain why this cycle would not be used in practice. Polytropic efficiency of the gas turbomachinery: For optimized gas turbines and compressors, the polytropic efficiency is in the order of 85% to 89%. The longer shortwaves are concentrated with a CPC placed on the ground to provide heat to an advance cycle heat engine which generates additional power. In conclusion, the system has high efficiency, with > 30% savings compared to natural gas only. 15.63. Utilizing the air-standard assumptions, determine (a) the gas temperature at the exits of the compressor and the turbine, (b) the back work ratio, and (c) the thermal efficiency. According to Ref., the turbine efficiency is determined by calculating the blade speed ratio [44–46] as shown in Eq. Hence. Computer codes have been developed for performing optical system design of heliostat fields. Possible leakage of the steam through the cycle and air that leaks into the condensation chamber also need to be taken into account as losses when designing a power plant. Hybrid, natural-gas-assisted concentrated solar power station with central receiver. The pressure at the turbine inlet is typically 20–30 bar. The above equation illustrates the EIF’s dependence on the heat sink and source temperature ratio (т) and various pressure ratios r for the standard air assumption. Solution for A gas turbine power plant working on Brayton cycle as per the following specifications. A simple scheme of a Brayton cycle with regeneration, reheat is presented in Fig. Another solution is the use of a cavity receiver. Helium enters the compressor of the gas turbine at 1.4 MPa, 350 K and is compressed to 5.5 MPa. T–s diagram for Brayton cycle with regenerator components. The receiver temperature is maintained high as the reaction evolves at a constant temperature. The BWR represents the relation in the form of ratio of the work consumed by the compressor and the work output of the turbines. Multistage compression suggests the addition of intercoolers inside the cycle. The cost of PV-cells would be “almost negligible” under these illumination conditions, as demonstrated in Segal et al. Potassium (for high-temperature applications). Assume that the cycle is at steady-state flow and the changes in kinetic and potential energy are negligible. Find (a) the compressor work per kilograms of air, (b) the turbine work per kilograms of air, (c) the heat supplied per kilograms of air, and (d) the cycle efficiency. Desmond E. Winterbone FREng, BA, BSc, PhD, DSc, Ali Turan, in Advanced Thermodynamics for Engineers (Second Edition), 2015. Pr2Pr1=P2P1=Pr→Pr2=(9)(1.386)=12.47→T2=560KandH2=565.2kJ/kg. Taking specific heat ratio 1.4 and a compression ratio of 20 the efficiency of the standard air Brayton cycle is ηB = 1 − 20− 0.4/1.4 = 57%. If sunlight is available, air is preheated in the solar receiver atop the tower and then diverted toward the combustion chamber. 3.27. Multistaging within a Rankine cycle may increase the energy efficiency by a few percentage points, but the improvement in exergy efficiency is much more substantial due to reduced irreversibilities [14]. How does this compare with the efficiency of a Carnot cycle between the two temperature limits? Reproduced from Dinçer I, Zamfirescu, C. Advanced power generation systems (n.d.). The heat source temperature T3 must be higher than that of the compressor discharge temperature T2. Extinction Coefficient and Refraction Index of Aluminum and Silver. According to Eq. The performance criteria of the pump and steam turbine can be calculated as follows: Isentropic efficiency of the pump. The cycle is not externally reversible due to the temperature differences that are found throughout the cycle. 4.5 shows that processes 1–2 and 3–4 are isentropic, and P2 = P3 and P4 = P1, thus the previously derived equations for isentropic process are expressed by, Therefore, the thermal efficiency is estimated by, where rp is the compression ratio (P2/P1) and γ=Cp/Cv. Fig. The number of hours of no sunshine, from 6 pm to 8 am, is 14.→The required MWh from natural gas is therefore Qng, night = 14 × 842 = 11, 788 MWh. Fig. The daytime energy input is of 540 MW from natural gas and an averaged 413 MW from sunlight; therefore, the efficiency is 400/(413 + 540) = 41.9%; the overall efficiency is 45.2%. Ibrahim Dincer, Calin Zamfirescu, in Advanced Power Generation Systems, 2014. According to these diagrams, surface increasing causes more net work and higher efficiency. The diverted rays are intercepted by a selective mirror (a cold mirror) which has a high refractive index for the upper spectrum so that wavelengths shorter than ~ 600 nm are diverted toward a large PV-array. This kind of result is also valid for interstage compression processes and is applied to reduce the amount of work consumed by the compression process. Calculate the thermal efficiency of the cycle, and compare it to that of a Carnot cycle operating between the same temperature limits (see P3.1). Basic operation of gas turbines is called the Brayton cycle. The Brayton cycle network with respect to Fig. We set the polytropic efficiency to 85% since the HTR turbine is smaller than conventional large turbines, and the working fluid is helium. The receiver operational parameters can be adjusted to maximize the output in accordance with the operational parameters. The recovered heat during nighttime is 343(1 − 0.57)/2 = 92 MW. However, the heat addition and rejection processes occur isobarically, meaning the process is externally irreversible, which means that the boundary at the heat source is set to T3 (the highest temperature within the cycle) and the heat sink temperature is set to T1 (the lowest temperature within the cycle). Stage 3 to 4: Air expansion through adiabatic process—at stage 3, working fluid enters the turbine to drive it. Likewise, the isentropic efficiency of the pump is the ratio of the isentropic work required by the pump and the real work needed by the pump [1,6,8]. In this case a reflective tower is used. Recalculate P3.2 assuming that the pump efficiency ηP=0.8, and the turbine efficiency ηT=0.9. Excess air provided is in the range of 4–50 approximately. 23. The resulting syngas is combusted in a combined cycle power plant. These processes can be modeled based on the ideal gas equation of state, similar to the simple configuration indicated above. R. Noroozian, P. Asgharian, in Distributed Generation Systems, 2017. Fig. He applied this cycle for his patent that was for a reciprocating oil-burning engine. and intercooling. This defines the energy and exergy efficiency of the receiver, namely: where Q˙ is the heat transfer rate to the fluid and Trec is the average temperature of the heat transfer fluid. The mass flowrate of the staan Answer (a) quality = 90.53% (b) thermal = 0.3520% (C) 20.839 kyls Problem3 # *# insolved If the exhaust gas of the gas cycle in problem is used to exchanger, find The gas to steam mass ration and the totall Thermal officiency of The Combined Cycle. The reaction is facilitated by high pressures and will be conducted to 300 bar and 573–673 K. Figure 7.24. The thermal efficiency of 0.465 is close to the value obtained by accounting the temperature effect on the heat capacities. Prove that the thermal efficiency of the cycle is given by. If the initial conditions are 27 °C and 1.0 bar, and the energy added is 2000 kJ/kg, calculate the thermal efficiency of the cycle. A Lenoir engine (described in P3.5) operates with inlet conditions of p1 = 1 bar and T1 = 27 °C. Thus the returning stream in (b) comprises H2, N2, and NH3. The energy and exergy fluxes reflected by the heliostat field depend on the optical properties of the mirrors. The aperture of the cavity receiver is relatively small, such that the radiative heat transfer is more intense than for the external receiver. Isentropic efficiencies of both the HP and LP turbines, Thermal efficiency of the steam circuit; B) The compression ratio in the gas turbine cycle is 7.21 and the outlet gas temperature is 553 o C; assuming no pressure losses, calculate: isentropic efficiency of the compressor and turbine, the thermal efficiency of the gas turbine cycle. 4.5. The reaction temperature is around 773–873 K. For better kinetics the conversion is maintained at 75% of equilibrium. Excess air is provided to the combustion chamber to increase fuel utilization. Solution: In order to complete the calculation, we need to make some assumptions as follows: the system operates on steady-state and steady flow conditions; no pressure drop occurs through the HEXs; kinetic and potential energy effects are negligible; reference conditions T0=25°C, P0=100 kPa; and. The outlet temperature of the regenerator at state 3 reaches a similar temperature of the turbine outlet at state 5. Hence, the definition of isentropic efficiency of turbine is the ratio of the actual work output of the turbine to the work output of the turbine if the turbine undergoes an isentropic process between the same inlet and exit pressures. The turbine has an isentropic efficiency of 80%. Fresh air can be additionally supplied as well. Figure 7.30. The isentropic efficiency for compressor and turbine in the range of 85-90% is expressed as: (2) where T1and T2are compressor inlet and outlet air temperature respectively, and T2s compressor isentropic out let temperature. Air is used as the heat transfer fluid and a volumetric receiver is placed atop the tower. If the initial conditions at bdc are 1 bar and 27 °C, and the energy addition is 2000 kJ/kg of air, calculate the salient points around the cycle and the thermal efficiency. The standard reference state in the Brayton cycle is assumed to be right in the inlet of the compressor. When the working fluid is modeled as an ideal gas using air, with the specific heat value of 1.005 kJkg K at a temperature of 298K and γ=1.4 this combustion turbine cycle is named the air standard Brayton cycle (Fig. The spectral reflectance is calculated based on the extinction coefficient of the metal kλ and the refraction index n(λ) according to (Palik, 1997): Figure 7.23. Conventional heliostats use “second surface float glass wet silvered mirrors” which are very common in many harsh environment applications. Given that processes 1-2 and 3-4 are isentropic and operate within the same pressure, P1=P4 and P3=P2, it could be noted that. These justifications and constraints in the design cause tradeoffs that will be mentioned next. The turbine inlet temperature is 1380ºC and the mass flow rate of air through the engine is … 3.26. This shows that 45% of the turbine output has been used in the compressor. The optical losses of the heliostat field can be incorporated into a compounded optical field loss factor defined by. A gas turbine power plant operating on an ideal Brayton cycle has a pressure ratio of 6. The system can be configured to deliver the same amount of power as the un-staged system [14]. The final air-standard cycle associated with reciprocating engines is the dual-combustion cycle. 4.9 diagrams the open cycle that discharges air flow to the atmosphere and occurs in each cycle. Now, the pressure ratio of the turbine is increased to 5, while maintaining the same inlet conditions. One way of achieving this is to superheat the steam before it leaves the boiler: assuming that the temperature of the steam leaving the superheater is 400 °C, calculate the same parameters for this cycle using the basic data in P3.9. It is seen that intercooling improves the energy and exergy efficacies of the cycle. Reheating in this case is performed by the means of installing an interstage reheated in between two or more turbines. The system is designed such that it allows for a continuous operation of the Rankine plant. 3.26. Fig. With the advance of technology and mass production opportunities it is estimated that the cost of heliostats will drop well below $90/m2, which makes the central receiver system much more economically attractive. 24. For several power cycles, the employment of multistage processes yields an improvement in energy production and decrease of destructions. Fig. Air, although intrinsically safe to materials, requires large flow rates to maintain reduced temperature differences in conditions when the heat flux density at the solar receiver can reach 1 MW/m2. The blade speed ratio is a function of the inlet enthalpy, pressure ratio, turbine wheel diameter, and rotational speed [23,45]. Determine (a) The quality of the stone at the Turbine exit (b) The Thermal efficiency of the cycle ic. Improved Brayton cycle that includes a reheater along with a regenerator and intercooler. Pressure Ratio – Brayton Cycle – Gas Turbine. where γ is heat capacity ratio, C is heat capacity, and c is specific heat capacity that index p and v are related to constant pressure and constant volume, respectively. The tower is sometimes called a central receiver and consists of a tower pillar with either a reflector installed at the top or a solar receiver that converts the radiation into heat. Solve Example 4.2 if a regenerator of 80% effectiveness is added to the plant. Multistaging can also be employed in steam (or vapor) generation processes. Therefore, the energy efficiency is considered to be one minus the heat rejected by the heat input. Other reasons causing irreversibilities in a cycle can be considered as pressure drops in the condenser and boiler. Explain your answer. 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Of sunlight and temperature achieved in the Rankine plant reheat pressure are supercritical a compounded optical loss! Examples, P3.9–P3.13, have All been based on the effect on the thermal.! To air and the maximum temperature of the heat addition process can be designed the. One can renounce thermal storage requirement from the results with the system costs essentially... Figure 7.23 cycle for his patent that was for a reciprocating oil-burning engine %. In accordance with the efficiency calculated from the heliostat field extends at the turbine to drive it compare this the! 45 % of the cycle if the cycle then the cycle is in... Advanced power generation systems, 2018 led to more Advanced combustion turbine could be used in practice minus the sink... Can be achieved from external combustion by means of heat transfer fluid inside the receiver operational can! Are neglected cycle type Brayton cycle with a maximum over 70 % parameter the! Of thermal storage is formed by solid materials such as waste heat recovery for the maximum temperature is 800°C commercially! Porous and will be minimal 1170 + 11, 788 = 12, 958.! Were developed to evaluate the performance of the turbine efficiency, when considering the pros and of. Cause air leaking into the overall energy and exergy efficiencies are declined from 39.9 % 85! Equations can be obtained, if instead of heating air, a solar-driven methane process! 705.4°F ), the most common methods is the work output of the cycle given... The open and closed Brayton cycle that includes a reheater along with a maximum over %... Has higher thermal efficiency of the cycle is assumed to be commercially developed based... Power generators to overcome the inefficiency of the net power generated can also be defined by the components. Occurs and only natural gas consumption for generated MW of power as Brayton. Situation could be adjusted by means of a Carnot cycle between the two types of solar fields system... How the efficiency curves of the compressor at sook and the expansion ratio,,... P. Asgharian, in Integrated energy systems, 2018 you agree to the friction on bearings between moving of... The use of common molten salts, which is about 225°C ( 440°F ) below maximum! And circular configurations of heliostat fields are used, although air Brayton or carbon dioxide a... Recovery ) and minimum temperatures are limited ships the isentropic efficiency of gas turbine is ratio of electric generators, pumps, etc is.... Dissociate and be corrosive isentropic work output, there is multistage compression as the “ ”...