When writing a list of items for an academic paper, place a comma between each item in the list, including before the word "and." The price for the ticket is $15.75 including sales tax. Mignon Fogarty is the founder of Quick and Dirty Tips and the author of seven books on language, including the New York Times bestseller "Grammar Girl's Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing." The comma before such as is correct because the phrase is a nonessential clause. The Listing Comma. 2. “Be … Semicolons . anonymous; Grass hay … My understanding is that if the subordinate clause follows the main clause, no comma precedes the conjunction; however, I saw the following sentence in the Q&A and am now confused. We use commas while combining multiple phrases in one sentence or writing about different items in a list. I visited France, Germany, Italy, Britain and Spain. 1. … In that case then it follows the rules for "because" outlined above, i.e. 3. More examples: Everyone survived, including the family dog. In British English, it is quite unusual to use a comma with and. The comma makes things clearer, and a recent lawsuit proves that. First, it is used in a list when three or more words, phrases or even complete sentences are joined by the word and or or; we might call this construction an X, Y and Z list: The Three Musketeers were Athos, Porthos and … Corps of Engineers Assistant Secretary for Civil Works. The same rules apply for titles. NOTE: Do not use a comma if the order is reversed (the independent clause comes before the dependent clause), except for cases of extreme contrast. only include a comma before "since" when the verb in the independent clause that precedes it is negated and this might cause confusion. If the examples are essential to the meaning of … Commas indicate a pause or a list in a sentence. We'll show you how to use conjunctions, clauses, relative pronouns, and the proper way to use a comma after "and" with our comma cheat sheet. Have a bath and wash your entire body, including your teeth and nails 2. If it is … The band has five members, including a drummer, two guitars, a violin, and a flute. There are some cases where you know you should use a comma – such as when separating items in a list – but there are other times when you might be unsure whether or not a comma … No. He went to London for two weeks, and he stayed at an expensive … Before the fists begin to fly, let me say that, in my experience, there is a clear gulf between the two camps regarding the use of the comma before connecting in a series of three or more items. Comma before or after including? Should I use a comma between two adjectives? (GB) I visited France, Germany, Italy, Britain, and Spain. A comma comes after each noun in a list. The final comma before the "and" is called the serial comma. They should really be called "adnouns" to be consistent … Example: While I was eating, the cat scratched at the door.

First, it is together. The most basic type of list appears in the running text of a sentence, with each item separated by a comma. In AP style, omit the comma before the last item in a simple series, such as "Joe, John and Steve." A comma should be used after an introductory word to separate this word from the main sentence. Use a comma after the conjunction when it is followed by an interruption. … It could be excluded as well, resulting in the following: “There are many activities including, but not limited to, running, jumping and swimming.” Keeping the Oxford comma is useful for differentiating the items as three separate examples rather than as two, e.g. The last two items in a list are usually connected by and. The comma placed between “jumping” and “and swimming” is an example of an Oxford comma. For example, Each child was given a plush toy, a building block, and a rubber ball. In English language punctuation, a serial comma, or series comma (also called an Oxford comma or Harvard comma), is a comma placed immediately after the penultimate term (i.e. Because I was late, I had to sit in the back. I love to pet kittens, puppies and rabbits. What the Dictionaries Tell Us. The thinking is that if the preceding … If the writer feels that the intended audience of this sentence do not know about the members of G8 countries, he can make it defining by not inserting the comma before "including". A semicolon creates more separation between thoughts than a comma does but less than a period does. Examples of the comma before and, so, yet and or. I love to pet kittens, puppies and rabbits. Sometimes, you might want to include extra information within a sentence that isn’t essential to its meaning. before the coordinating conjunction [usually and or or]) in a series of three or more terms.For example, a list of three countries might be punctuated either as "France, Italy and Spain" (without the serial comma… All lists in APA Style should include a serial comma—the final comma before the conjunction. So the list above would run like this: Citrus fruits, such as oranges and grapefruits, are high in vitamin C. We like to plan our vacations around three-day weekends, such as Labor Day. The semicolon looks like a comma with a period above it, and this can be a good way to remember what it does. My work background includes conservation work, such as prairie restoration and controlled burns. 2018-05-24 16:21 #0 by: Evelina Use a comma before “including” and “such as” when followed by a nonrestrictive, nonessential phrase or clause. Using a Comma before “And” (and Other Coordinating Conjunctions) in a Sentence. Since most … If he feels, the readers know he can set of the phrase within commas. Correct comma replacement depends on whether such as introduces an essential or nonessential clause. First, some courts have held that an item only falls within the preceding noun if it falls within one of the items in the list. Have a bath and wash your entire body including your teeth and nails Reputable dictionaries, including Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary and the American Heritage Dictionary, tell us that the verb include is not interchangeable with the verb are. If you use the word "including," it may help clarify to put a comma BEFORE it, but you still do not need a colon after it. We use commas to separate items in a series or list. Here are the two most common uses of the semicolon: 1. When there are just two items in a list, a comma … Let’s look at … Comma before and … We are having a continuing discussion about the use of a comma before since in this type of sentence: The number was purposely selected, since most people can divide mentally. The Oxford comma … Adjectives are words that modify a noun like "old", "red", "greasy". To help separate items in a list, when some of those items already contain commas. If the series includes internal commas that necessitate semicolons or uses a conjunction such as "and," include the comma. Colons can introduce a list, while commas are used to separate items in a list. The sections in … In this example, what's right? There’s a long-running debate over whether it’s proper to include that last comma in a list. If the specific examples aren’t essential to the accuracy of your sentence, then use a comma before such as and after your example, unless the example is at the very end of the sentence. There are more usages of a comma, for example, how adding or removing comma before and after a name changes the meaning of the sentence — In this Grammar.com article let us understand how to correctly use commas with names. Well, forget proper. 5. Apr 06 2011 19:28:54 . A comma comes after every coordinating adjective except for the last adjective. In the above, the comma before "including" (and the one after "Russia") is purely based on the context. Do you go to the store for “cupcakes, vanilla, and chocolate” or “cupcakes, vanilla and chocolate”? Nor should you put a colon there. About the Author. In section 4.03 of APA 6, the serial comma is clearly required: “between elements (including before and and or) in a series of three or more items.” In fact, APA even requires the serial comma to be included in in-text references: (Smith, Smith, & Jones, 2016). By definition, if we use the word include or including before a list, we are telling the reader that the list is not exhaustive. 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